ØMethodology section is one of the parts of a research paper.

ØThis part is the core of your paper as it is a proof that you use the scientific method.

ØThrough this section, your study’s validity is judged. So, it is very important.

ØYour methodology answers two main questions:
  1. How did you collect or generate the data?
  2. How did you analyze the data?

ØWhile writing this section, be direct and precise. Write it in the past tense.

ØInclude enough information so that
  1. others could repeat the experiment and evaluate whether the results are reproducible.
  2. the audience can judge whether the results and conclusions are valid.

ØThe explanation of the collection and the analysis of your data is very important because;
  1. readers need to know the reasons why you chose a particular method or procedure instead of others.
  2. readers need to know that the collection or the generation of the data is valid in the field of study.

ØDiscuss the anticipated problems in the process of the data collection and the steps you took to prevent them.

ØPresent the rationale for why you chose specific experimental procedures.

ØProvide sufficient information of the whole process so that others could replicate your study. You can do this by:
  1. giving a completely accurate description of the data collection equipments and the techniques.
  2. explaining how you collected the data and analysed them.


a- Present the basic demographic profile of the sample population like age, gender, and the racial composition of the sample. When animals are the subjects of a study, you list their species, weight, strain, sex, and age.

b- Explain how you gathered the samples/ subjects by answering these questions:

I- Did you use any randomization techniques?
II- How did you prepare the samples?

c- Explain how you made the measurements by answering this question.

I -What calculations did you make?

d- Describe the materials and equipments that you used in the research.

e- Describe the statistical techniques that you used upon the data.

The order of the methods section should flow like this:

1. Describing the samples/ participants.
2. Describing the materials you used in the study
3. Explaining how you prepared the materials
4. Describing the research design
5. Explaining how you made measurements and what calculations you performed
6. Stating which statistical tests you did to analyze the data.