An abstract

  • is a summary of a longer piece of academic work.
  • explains the main elements of the academic paper.
  • is published in isolation from the main text and it is understandable without reference to the longer piece.
  • should contain keywords and phrases to be found in search engines.
  • is composed of 100 – 300 words.
  • does not contain any new information.

An abstract is written

  • to give a general idea about your academic work.
  • to help people to decide whether to read the whole paper or not.
  • to explain purpose, methods and scope of the research
  • to state key findings of the article and summarize it.

WHEN TO WRITE AN ABSTRACT


You should write an abstract if you want to


  • submit articles to journals,
  • write a proposal for a conference paper,
  • apply for research grants,
  • write a book or a book chapter proposal,
  • submit a dissertation or thesis.


COMPONENTS OF AN ABSTRACT


Background – Write one or two sentences summarizing the context of the article.
Aim(s) – Write one or two sentences to explain why this research is conducted.
Method(s) - Write one or two sentences to give information about the methods used in the study.
Results - Write one or two sentences to describe the major findings, implications and the applications of the study.
Conclusions - Write one sentence to explain the most significant consequence of the work.
Keywords – Write at least three keywords which are related to your work.

WRITING A GOOD ABSTRACT

A good abstract should answer these questions in one or two paragraphs:
  • What are the major objectives and conclusions?
  • What are the key phrases in the methods section?
  • What are the main results from the discussion or results section?

Some Points to Consider:

  • Do not explain background information and literature review in detail.
  • Do not describe the methods in detail.
  • Write only the information which is essential.
  • Relate back to your purpose and research question.
  • Avoid abbreviations, acronyms and jargon.
  • Write less than 300 words.
  • Add Keywords section at the end of your abstract – choose at least three keywords which are related to your work.
  • Read the targeted journal guidelines and revise your abstract.
  • Take appointment from your institution’s writing center and get feedback about your abstract.


Click here to download exercise #1

Click here to download exercise #2

HOW TO WRITE AN ABSTRACT
An abstract

is a summary of a longer piece of academic work.
explains the main elements of the academic paper.

is published in isolation from the main text and it is understandable without reference to the longer piece.
should contain keywords and phrases to be found in search engines.
is composed of 100 – 300 words.
does not contain any new information.


An abstract is written
to give a general idea about your academic work.
to help people to decide whether to read the whole paper or not.
to explain purpose, methods and scope of the research
to state key findings of the article and summarize it.


WHEN TO WRITE AN ABSTRACT

You should write an abstract if you want to

submit articles to journals,
write a proposal for a conference paper,
apply for research grants,
write a book or a book chapter proposal,
submit a dissertation or thesis.




COMPONENTS OF AN ABSTRACT
Background – Write one or two sentences summarizing the context of the article.
Aim(s) – Write one or two sentences to explain why this research is conducted.
Method(s) - Write one or two sentences to give information about the methods used in the study.
Results - Write one or two sentences to describe the major findings, implications and the applications of the study.
Conclusions - Write one sentence to explain the most significant consequence of the work.
Keywords – Write at least three keywords which are related to your work.


WRITING A GOOD ABSTRACT
A good abstract should answer these questions in one or two paragraphs:

o What are the major objectives and conclusions?
o What are the key phrases in the methods section?
o What are the main results from the discussion or results section?


· Do not explain background information and literature review in detail.
· Do not describe the methods in detail.
· Write only the information which is essential.
· Relate back to your purpose and research question.
· Avoid abbreviations, acronyms and jargon.
· Write less than 300 words.
· Add Keywords section at the end of your abstract – choose at least three keywords which are related to your work.
· Read the targeted journal guidelines and revise your abstract.
· Take appointment from your institution’s writing center and get feedback about your abstract.