THE PURPOSE

Literature Review can be written
  • as a part of a Research paper, Proposal or Thesis / Dissertation,
  • to learn the topic
  • to improve understanding of the topic,
  • to develop new ideas,
  • to demonstrate the researcher’s knowledge about the topic.

HOW TO START WRITING

1. Find a topic or a relevant research question.

State the research question as specifically as possible

Example:
Choose which one is more specific?
  • What are the outcomes of direct translation method?
  • What are the differences between direct translation method and communicative language teaching method in regard to speaking outcomes in the preparation classes of an English medium university?
(The second question is more specific.)

2. Search for articles and books that fit into your context.

Go to the library or an online database (http://bilgimerkezi.yeditepe.edu.tr/ or http://scholar.google.com.tr/) to find general reference tools, primary and secondary sources.
—
General reference tools tell you where to look to locate other sources.

— In the Indexes you can find:
  • o Author,
  • o Title,
  • o Place of publication of articles and other materials
—
In the Abstracts you can find:
  • o Brief summary or annotation of various publications
  • o Author,
  • o Title,
  • o Place of publication of articles and other materials

  • Primary sources give you firsthand information
    • In primary sources researchers report the results of their studies directly to the reader (i.e. Journals and Reports)
  • Secondary sources give you secondhand information
    • In Secondary sources authors describe the work of others (i.e. Textbooks)

HOW TO COLLECT RELEVANT SOURCES


1. Read headings to have an idea about the whole paper
2. Read Abstracts for summary of the paper
3. Read Conclusions to see the results of the study
4. Read Reference pages to find more sources related to that topic


THE PROCESS

HOW TO ANALYSE THE ARTICLES


1. Read the abstract and conclusion.
2. Read the whole paper.
3. Read the abstract and conclusion again.
4. Take some notes soon after reading the article.
5. Describe and summarize the articles you have read.

Describe:
Problem:
Hypotheses or objectives:
Procedures:
Findings:
Conclusions:

6. Discover relationships between sources
  • Major themes and concepts
  • Critical gaps and disagreements

7. Use mind maps or literature matrix while reading sources in order to understand theory, concepts and the relationships between them.
  • Literature matrix: an organizational tool to display the relationship or common attributes among multiple studies
(i.e. A table, chart or flow chart)
  • Mind Map: an organizational tool to visualise the relationship between themes.
(How to mind map: //http://www.mind-mapping.co.uk/_images/_Images/ADVICE-AND-INFORMATION/How-to-MindMap-imindmap.jpg//)

HOW TO STRUCTURE THE LITERATURE REVIEW


  1. Identify the key themes in the review
  2. Start organizing the concepts and documents in accordance with the key themes or use the literature matrix
  3. Organise what to write.
    • Introduction
    • Theoretical framework(s) underlying the research purpose
    • Review of relevant empirical studies and/or qualitative research
    • Summary

  1. Integrate:
  • Synthesis of key concepts
— Use helpful phrases to integrate key concepts (click to see document)

  • Quotations, in the words of the original writer
— Using direct quotations, cite the author, date and page number of the quote.

Ferris noted that we are essentially “at Square One and need to see to better, well designed research” (2004, p. 49).
(Evans, N. W., Hartshorn, K. J., & Krause, D. (2011). The efficacy of dynamic written corrective feedback for university matriculated ESL learners. System. 39 (2), 229 – 239)

  • Paraphrasing of research findings or theories from other authors.
— Paraphrasing should be acknowledged with a citation.

In similar fashion, Gue´nette (2007) argued that most claims about corrective feedback being effective or ineffective are difficult to substantiate since much of the current research is faulty and methodologically inconsistent.
(Evans, N. W., Hartshorn, K. J., & Krause, D. (2011). The efficacy of dynamic written corrective feedback for university matriculated ESL learners. System. 39 (2), 229 – 239)


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